The Environmental Cost of AI Deployment: A Critical Analysis

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By topfree


The surge in the popularity of commercial AI products, particularly those based on generative, multi-purpose AI systems, has been remarkable in recent years. These systems promise a unified approach to building machine learning (ML) models and integrating them into various technologies. However, this ambition of achieving “generality” comes at a steep environmental cost due to the significant amount of energy these systems require and the corresponding carbon emissions they produce.

Understanding the Environmental Impact

The environmental impact of different industries is a critical area of study, especially for newer sectors like information and communication technologies (ICT), which include AI and ML. Between 2017 and 2021, the electricity consumption of major cloud providers such as Meta, Amazon, Microsoft, and Google more than doubled. Global data center electricity consumption has grown by 20-40% annually in recent years, reaching 1-1.3% of global electricity demand and contributing to 1% of energy-related greenhouse gas emissions in 2022. However, the specific contribution of the AI sector to these figures remains unclear.

Focus of the Study

Most studies on the environmental impact of ML have focused on the training phase of the ML model lifecycle due to the relative ease of measuring per-model energy use during this phase. Yet, the inference phase, which involves deploying trained models for use, can also significantly impact the environment due to the computational resources required for large-scale deployment.

Inference, which occurs far more frequently than training, can represent a substantial portion of a model’s overall carbon footprint. For instance, inference is estimated to account for 80 to 90% of total ML cloud computing demand according to AWS, while a 2021 publication by Meta attributed approximately one-third of their internal ML carbon footprint to model inference.

Key Findings

  1. Generative Tasks Are More Energy-Intensive: Generative tasks such as text generation, summarization, image captioning, and image generation are significantly more energy- and carbon-intensive compared to discriminative tasks like text and image classification.
  2. Image-Based Tasks Are More Energy-Intensive Than Text-Based Tasks: Tasks involving image processing consume more energy than those involving only text. For instance, image generation tasks require considerably more energy compared to text classification tasks.
  3. Model Size and Task Structure Influence Emissions: Larger models and tasks that generate longer outputs result in higher energy consumption and carbon emissions. The study found that multi-purpose models, while capable of performing multiple tasks, are generally more energy-intensive compared to task-specific models.
  4. Decoder-Only Models vs. Sequence-to-Sequence Models: Decoder-only models (e.g., BLOOMz) are slightly more energy- and carbon-intensive than sequence-to-sequence models (e.g., Flan-T5) of similar sizes when applied to the same tasks. This difference is particularly pronounced for tasks with longer outputs.
  5. Training vs. Inference Costs: Although training an ML model is more energy-intensive than inference, the high frequency of inference operations can quickly accumulate energy costs. For popular models, the energy cost of inference can reach parity with training costs within a few weeks or months of deployment.

Implications for AI Deployment

The study highlights the need for more careful consideration when deploying multi-purpose AI systems, especially for tasks where task-specific models may be more energy-efficient. Given the significant environmental impact, the utility of these systems should be weighed against their increased energy and emission costs.

Future Directions

The research underscores the importance of transparency in reporting the energy consumption and carbon emissions associated with different stages of the ML model lifecycle. Future studies should aim to standardize methodologies for comparing the environmental impact of ML models and explore ways to mitigate these impacts through improved efficiency and sustainable practices.


As AI technology continues to advance, it is crucial to balance innovation with sustainability. By understanding and addressing the environmental costs of AI deployment, the tech industry can work towards more eco-friendly solutions that benefit both the market and the planet.


  1. Bannour, N., Ghannay, S., Névéol, A., & Ligozat, A.-L. (2021). Evaluating the carbon footprint of NLP methods: a survey and analysis of existing tools. In EMNLP, Workshop SustaiNLP.
  2. Barr, J. (2019). Amazon EC2 update–INF1 instances with AWS Inferentia chips for high performance cost-effective inferencing. AWS Blog
  3. Brown, T., et al. (2020). Language models are few-shot learners. Advances in neural information processing systems, 33, 1877–1901.
  4. Dodge, J., et al. (2022). Measuring the carbon intensity of AI in cloud instances. In Proceedings of the 2022 ACM Conference on Fairness, Accountability, and Transparency, 1877–1894.
  5. Luccioni, A. S., & Hernandez-Garcia, A. (2023). Counting carbon: A survey of factors influencing the emissions of machine learning. arXiv preprint arXiv:2302.08476.

By acknowledging and addressing the environmental costs of AI, we can ensure that the future of AI development is both innovative and sustainable.

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